Majority of patients prefer to reduce the time they spend in braces or other various orthodontic appliances. It has been established that longer treatment time can also possibly lead to irreversible side effects such as root resorption, white spot lesions and dental caries. As such, most of the research being conducted on orthodontics or braces treatment focuses on shortening treatment duration by accelerating the rate of tooth movement. One approach to expediting braces or orthodontic treatment is by the use of biological substances. A study has evaluated the influence of the different biological substances such as prostaglandins, human relaxin hormone, vitamin D, vitamin C and platelet-rich plasma on the rate of orthodontic teeth movement.
The movement of teeth during orthodontic treatment occurs from the application of mechanical forces, thereby causing bone remodelling. Bone remodelling entails the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts and the subsequent synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts, which thereafter become mineralized. Bone remodelling is important in causing tooth movement. The mechanical forces applied to the teeth causes release of different inflammatory mediators and in this regard, biological substances may alter bone remodelling pathways that affects orthodontic teeth movement.
According to the study, biological agents during orthodontic treatment have varying effects on the rate of tooth movement. Among the reviewed biological agents, prostaglandins have the most significant effect on orthodontic tooth movement as they stimulate both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Vitamin D, vitamin C and platelet-rich plasma also demonstrated an increase in the number of osteoclasts that eventually lead to tooth movement. However, there are several restrictions to the use of these biological agents in orthodontics. The majority of these drugs have a short half-life, which necessitates repeat administrations, which may not practicable during braces treatment. Furthermore, the limited observation period of the study made it difficult to assess the genuine effect and potential harm of these drugs if used throughout the orthodontic therapy. Therefore, further research is needed on these biological substances to explore their influence and effectiveness for the entire duration of braces or orthodontic treatment.